Sotkiewicz, Paul, and Jesus Vignolom. “Nodal Pricing for Distribution Networks: Efficient Pricing for Efficiency Enhancing Distributed Generation.” In, 2005.Abstract

    As distributed generation (DG) becomes more widely deployed distribution networks become more active and take on many of the same characteristics as transmission. We propose the use of nodal pricing that is often used in the pricing of short-term operations in transmission. As an economically efficient mechanism, nodal pricing would properly reward DG for reducing line losses through increased revenues at nodal prices, and signal prospective DG where it ought to connect with the distribution network. Applying nodal pricing to a model distribution network we show significant price differences between busses reflecting high marginal losses. Moreover, we show the contribution of a DG resource located at the end of the network to significant reductions in losses and line loading. We also show the DG resource has significantly greater revenue under nodal pricing reflecting its contribution to reduced line losses and loading.

    Rosenberg, William, Dwight Alpern, and Michael Walker. “Financing IGCC - 3 Party Covenant.” In, 2004. Publisher's VersionAbstract
    This paper describes a 3 Party Covenant financing and regulatory program aimed at reducing financing costs and providing a risk-tolerant investment structure to stimulate initial deployment of five to ten Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) coal generation power plants during this decade. The 3 Party Covenant is an arrangement between the federal government, state Public Utility Commission (PUC), and equity investor that serves to lower IGCC cost of capital by reducing the cost of debt, raising the debt/equity ratio, and minimizing construction financing costs. The 3 Party Covenant would reduce the cost of capital component of energy costs from new IGCC facilities by 34 percent and the overall cost of energy about 20 percent, making the technology cost competitive with pulverized coal (PC) and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) generation.