Hogan, William W.The Visible Hand in Electricity: Using a Pool to Expand Customer Choice.” In, 1997. Publisher's VersionAbstract
    Introduction. The United States is wasting time and effort in a confused debate over the role of an Independent System Operator (ISO) in a pool-based system for introducing competition in the electric sector. Everyone wants to allow for bilateral transactions between generators, marketers and final customers. The pooling approach allows for customer and generator bids to be cleared through a coordinated spot market administered by the ISO. Despite much high rhetoric to the contrary, the two objectives are not necessarily mutually exclusive, or even in conflict. An attractive option is to embrace both, and give market participants the maximum set of choices. The real issue, much obscured by the labels, is the extent to which the market will be efficient, non-discriminatory and open to all. The underlying technical problem is the coordination of short-term network interactions and treatment of transmission congestion.
    Hogan, William W.Evaluation of Alternatives for Power System Coordination and Pooling in a Competitive Environment.” In, 1996. Publisher's VersionAbstract

    The paper defines and classifies essential issues that relate the need for electric power system coordination with the increasing development of competition. Principles are formulated and a coordination model and a market structure are proposed, emphasizing the need for economic dispatch in the wholesale market. A detailed comparison is made of the market and pooling implementations developed in Argentina and Chile, countries that have pioneered the creation of competitive markets in the electric energy sector. An evaluation of strengths and weaknesses of those two implementations is included.