Brown, Ashley. “Honey, I Shrunk The Franchise!The Electricity Journal (1995).Abstract
    Detroit Edison's suit to halt the Michigan Commission's
    limited retail wheeling experiment could result in two
    ironies: (1) Edison may still be required to wheel power to
    retail customers, but at rates less likely to be fully
    compensatory, and (2) its generation will be more devalued
    than it would have been without the suit.
    Brown, Ashley. “Title Conference Paper.” In, 1991.Abstract

    For years, utilities, regulators, and economists have discussed the possibility of opening access to the electric transmission grid. It is now well past the time to cut the Gordian knot in impasse over the debate, and to raise the key strategic question of whether utility owned transmission facilities belong in the ratebase paid for by native-load ratepayers. The question is complex, but requires public discussion and debate as we move inexorably to more competitive bulk power markets. The issue is best approached from three different perspectives: 

    • Who should bear the risk of residual revenue respon-
    sibility for transmission assets?

    • Are actual costs and uses reflected in the allocation of responsibilities for transmission revenues?

    • How can transmission pricing be used to reduce the likelihood of anti-competitive behavior by those entities owning both generation and trasmission.